Types of Doctors

There are several branches in the field of medicine, and each subject of specialization yields a different type of doctor. This post lists out a few types and explains their field of specialization.
CareerStint Staff
Last Updated: Jul 3, 2018
There are different doctors who treat diverse diseases and disorders, according to their specialties. They specialize in one field and carry on their service in the same. Nowadays, since there are newer diseases health conditions being discovered, doctors are required to update their knowledge with the ever-changing methods of treatment.
Those treating physical issues might have to work with doctors dealing with mental problems to treat certain patients. This article lists the most commonly found specialists in the field of medicine.
Psychiatrist
Therapist comforting patient
These doctors specialize in the prevention and intervention of mental, emotional, or behavioral diseases, and prescribe suitable medicines for various conditions, from depression to schizophrenia.
They also undertake psychotherapy, behavioral therapy, and psychoanalysis. They check if the mental sickness is because of stress or physical conditions like a tumor in the brain. They conduct a detailed study of emotional problems and assist the patient to treat and cure it.
Nephrologist
Kidney with doctor
They are medical professionals who treat various kidney disorders.
They deal with people who are adverted to them by specialists in internal medicine, when severe kidney disorders are diagnosed. They treat disorders by using medicines, or by removing waste and harmful toxins from the body with specialized medical equipment.
If there is a need for a surgery wherein the kidney needs to be replaced or removed, nephrologists initiate the operation. They carry out kidney biopsies which are useful in the diagnosis of several kidney diseases. Nephrologists are soundly established in general medicine too, with a specific concentration in physiological procedures carried out by kidneys.
Some are even well versed in biochemistry and the instruments of modern biochemical analysis. A good nephrologist is conversant with the latest computerized diagnostic equipment and kidney dialysis machines.
Optometrist
Optometrist
When one has vision-related issues, the first step taken is to approach an optometrist who is an expert in the field of eye disorders.
Optometrists perform thorough testing of the eye and the visual system, determine the nature of problems, and suggest and prescribe appropriate treatment methods. If any pathologic condition is diagnosed after the analysis, they instantly suggest the patient to visit an ophthalmologist for further medical treatments or surgery.
These medical professionals even specialize in contact lenses or treating vision problems in children and the elderly. An optometrist helps patients choose aids for their eyes and makes sure about a good fit and comfort. He is supposed to take up continuing education to get to know technological advancements in the field of human eyesight.
Dermatologist
Dermatologist examining patient's skin for signs of cancer
The doctors who specialize in the treatment of skin diseases and disorders like acne, psoriasis, and skin cancer are known as dermatologists.
They have a deep understanding about various skin diseases which may affect other parts of the body. Nowadays, many skin complications and allergies are coming into existence, which are being treated and cured by dermatologists.
As a result, there are many sub-specialties being opted for by dermatologists; such as cosmetic dermatology, immunodermatology, teledermatology, mohs surgery, and dermatopathology, just to name a few. Today, due to the popularity of laser skin surgery, cosmetic dermatology has become one of the top earning professions.
Neurologist
They are adept in the study of the nervous system which covers the brain, 'medulla spinalis', and complicated working of the nerve network. They have an expertise in diagnosing and treating various nervous system diseases.
Infections and disorders in any part of the body may lead to severe nervous system complications, neurologists must be well aware of the total functioning of the body. Common issues handled by neurologists are frequent headaches, stroke, seizures, and sleep disorders; also address problems related to reflexes, memory, sense of touch, speech, and movement.
Dentist
Dentist and little patient
This doctor specializes in treatment and cure of all oral complications such as teeth, mouth, and jaw problems.
Many people choose a dentist with a general practice for routine checkups, but may need to approach a dentist who is proficient in treating complicated oral disorders in case of problems which may need specialized treatment.
Prosthodontists are responsible for straightening teeth, curing gum problems, performing root canals, tooth extraction, and other complex procedures. Today, cosmetic dentistry is attracting a substantial demand, owing to people's desire to have an attractive smile. Dentistry is definitely one of the rewarding career platforms in terms of income prospects.
Pediatrician
Pediatrician with Patience
Since the diseases, disorders, and treatments of infants is different from those affecting grown-ups, child care demands a totally different approach. A pediatrician is a doctor who is adept in treating health issues in children.
He has to be very careful when diagnosing complications and treating children, especially babies. A pediatrician also has to deal with genetic disorders which may affect the child in future.
During counseling or treatment, the doctor has to handle the mental state of the child as well. They are responsible for treating a wide range of developmental and anxiety issues. These medical personnel might have to work with other doctors for assistance in treatment.
Cardiologist
Senior patient getting ultrasound from doctor
Cardiologists are the most highly paid doctors. He is a medical expert who is proficient in finding, treating, and preventing complication in the heart. Since most issues can be diagnosed by previous medical records, he relies on the medical history of patients
He has to study each case carefully, as the condition is different in every patient. Owing to prevention of further heart problems, he may suggest certain changes in lifestyle.
If he is unable to treat the problem using medication and his procedures, he might refer to the case to a cardiovascular surgeon who performs surgeries. A cardiologist can even opt for pediatric cardiology as a specialization.
Obstetrician/Gynecologist
Pregnant women medical examination
The services of an obstetrician or gynecologist are required when there are complications in pregnancy. Due to the demand, a career in obstetrics is probably considered to be competitive among other medical jobs.
A majority of obstetricians are also trained in gynecology, thus referred to as OB/GYNs. These medical professionals look after all aspects of childbirth in prenatal and postnatal periods. They also counsel and treat women who have problems in the reproductive system.
Almost all OB/GYNs say that their job is very satisfying as they help pregnant women deal with difficult issues. Their role can be summed as delivering babies safely and maintaining the mother's health.
Veterinarian
By listening to a dog Veterinary bulldog French
Since most doctors work with humans, a veterinarian, also referred to as a vet, diagnoses and treats health issues of animals. These personnel can either choose surgery, dermatology, or medicine as a career specialty.
Nevertheless, there are many other specialties such as anesthesiology, animal behavior, internal medicine, nutrition, and surgery. A vet performs pet care tasks; out of which a few are vaccination, wound dressing, treating fractures, dental treatments, and so on. He may have to treat either pets, wild animals in zoos, or cattle and livestock.
Vets completely depend on the medical reports of the tests conducted, since animals cannot communicate their present condition.
Anesthesiologist
Group of surgeons working on a female patient
Anesthesiologists are skillful doctors who are responsible for administering anesthesia to the patient prior to a surgery. Anesthesiologists are believed to be the highest paid in the medical industry.
Since it is crucial that the patient is provided with the right dose of anesthesia, these experts have to take additional care. They have to keep a track of the patient's vital signs when the surgery is in process. 
After the surgery is successfully complete, they have to administer medications to help the patient regain consciousness. Apart from surgery-based anesthetics, they even treat patients with severe pain.
Gastroenterologist
Child having tummy examination by pediatrician
Due to an increase in people eating junk food and having an irregular lifestyle, there is a rise in the number of cases related to the digestive system. This is the main reason why the services of gastroenterologists are in demand.
These doctors are required to diagnose and treat disorders related to the digestive system. They are also proficient in the study of nutrition, which can be used to inform patient regarding a healthy diet. They conduct certain medical examinations which can be used to diagnose serious complications such as ulcers, colon cancer, heartburn, etc.
Urologist
Man at doctor's office
Another specialty in the profession of physicians is urology. A urologist examines and treats disorders associated with the urinary tract.
As urinary tract issues can also have a direct effect on the reproductive system, a urologist is also trained in treating disorders of reproductive system of males.
There are several sub-specialties in this career as well; such as laparoscopy, reconstructive urology, urogynecology, neurourology, and similar others. He is also trained in other fields such as pediatrics, medicine, and gynecology. He has to refer to reports generated by performing various tests using fluoroscopes, catheters, X-rays, body scans, etc.