Psychology is as vast as the human mind. This field deals with multiple sections of the human brain. It is defined as the scientific study of perception, attention, emotion, motivation, personality, behavior and interpersonal relationships. In some cases, even the unconscious mind becomes a part of the study.
As psychology deals with just more than one aspect of human behavior, there are people who specialize in different fields of psychology. The common ones are clinical psychology, counseling psychology, school psychology, forensic psychology, health psychology, neuropsychology, industrial-organizational psychology, developmental psychology and research psychology.
A clinical psychologist job duties deal with a specialty that is the largest of all. The major part of the work is involved in counseling centers, carrying out practices that may be independent or a group by nature and working in hospitals and clinics. The psychologist's work is subjected to help people (clients) to cope with their mental or emotional problems, thereby adjusting to life and start all over again. Patients who have undergone any kinds of medical trauma or surgeries, can also be aided by a clinical psychologist. Here, the psychologist focuses subjects of psychological assessment and psychotherapy, apart from researching, teaching, consulting, etc.
A counseling psychologist's work is centered around settings such as university counseling centers, hospitals, schools, governmental organizations, businesses and private practice (group or individual). Subjects based on emotional, social, vocational, educational, development and organizational concerns are the prime areas that come into picture of a counseling psychologist's job description. The psychologist employs various techniques such as interviews and tests with a goal to facilitate personal and interpersonal functioning of a person's life.
Psychological problems of students belonging to elementary and secondary schools, and students at an initial stage of their education, are dealt with by a school psychologist. The work involves important people such as parents, teachers and other school personnel to provide proper learning environment for students of all age groups. The job description of a school psychologist basically involves improving learning and social adjustment, by addressing the students' learning and behavioral problems. Suggestions are put forward by the psychologist for necessary improvements in the classroom environment and parenting skills. In this field of psychology, children who suffer from any kind of disability, are educated in the best possible way, apart from those who are gifted and talented.
A forensic psychologist works with the criminal justice system, such as dealing with mentally imbalanced offenders, attorneys, analyzing a criminal's mind, perception and behavior, and includes practicing within the civil arena. The work may also focus on the psychologist getting trained in other branches of psychology such as clinical, social, organizational and others.
A person's health and illness is mainly affected by biological, psychological and social factors. Study of such factors form the core part of what a health psychologist is supposed to do. Health counseling on healthy living and disease prevention are promoted by the psychologist, and at the same time a person's reaction to illness and treatment are also reviewed as and when required. Health psychology has a great deal of benefit in changing people's attitude and perception towards health and illnesses. Quitting smoking, drinking and inculcating safer sex practices, etc., are some other areas of specialization of a health psychologist.
Neuropsychologist, as the name implies, deals with the delicate relationship between the brain to psychological processes and overt behavior. All what is related to the brain are assessed by this psychologist; vision, smell, taste, memory, depression, etc., are the common examples. People who are suffering from or have suffered from stroke, brain injury, dementia, tumors and degenerative brain diseases are managed and rehabilitated by a neuropsychologist. In short, illnesses or injury, especially to the brain that has caused neuro-cognitive problems in people, have a psychological viewpoint of treatment.
An industrial-organizational psychologist relies on the psychological principles and research methods which can help an organization get the best from its workforce. It also helps in improving job satisfaction, productivity and the quality of the work an individual does. In this way, the psychologist ensures improvement in the organization's effectiveness, and the career development of employees. The psychologist works with the management to bring about necessary changes or alterations in the work environment, to improve the productivity and all what is related to develop a successful organization.
Crucial stages of development in life are the main areas of interest for a developmental psychologist. This might include physiological, cognitive, and social development. Infancy, childhood and adolescence (maturity or old age) are all subjected to behavioral changes in life, and such changes are specialized upon by a development psychologist.
Not only the human behavior, but behavioral aspects of animals (common examples being monkeys, rats, and pigeons) are a part of the study conducted by a research psychologist, also known as experimental psychologist. Business centers, non-profit and government organizations are the settings that are involved in the job of a research psychologist. Here, the scientist requires an in-depth study on why and how an individual feels, thinks, learns and acts. The research taken up the psychologist deals with motivation, perception, attention, memory, and genetic and neurological factors affecting behavior. According to experts, extensively trained professionals fit the profile this job demands. Any physical anomalies in the brain are also examined by this professional, and he also advises effective treatment plans to correct the problem.
Thus, you can see the vastness and wide-spread dimensions of psychology. As mentioned earlier, factors related to human psychology has its roots in multiple aspects of life, and that is the prime reason for the involvement of different psychologists and their varied job duties.